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What is Quantum teleportation explained in detailed

quantum physics
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“What is Quantum teleportation?”- to know it, first you have to know “what is Teleportation?“. Teleportation is meant classical teleportation and normally it’s the process of transferring a body physically from one place to another. Here from one place, the body dematerializes at the source and again materializes at the destination. Today askerweb will let you know about “Quantum Teleportation”.

Source or credit: – In a Nutshell

What is Quantum teleportation?

Only Quantum information is transfered from one place to another without any medium via this Quantum teleportation method.
It can be called Quantum communication.

Quantum teleportation
Quantum teleportation Source or credit:

Why is 2017 China’s Quantum teleportation important?

In 2017 there was a viral rumor when China announced that they had been able to teleport a photon into the satellite in the lower orbit.
This had gone so viral because we thought it was real teleportation like the movie Star Trek, where the body vanishes at one place and at the same time appears at the other place, but for China, it was not the case. They just Quantum teleported the photon, I mean transferred the quantum information from one place’s photon to the satellite’s photon at lower orbit.
But in the case of China, it’s really important because it was the first time quantum information transmitted a very very long distance (longest distance at that time).

Quantum teleportation
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Why it’s called Quantum teleportation?

You might think that the word “teleportation” is not suitable here, because the information is just shared between two places, but wait. There’s a twist.
There are two theorems

  1. No cloning and
  2. No deleting.

By the no-cloning theorem, we come to know that the quantum particle can not be cloned or copied, which means after transferring the information to the second quantum particle the first particle can not exist. Then it will be its copied version. Now you may be thinking that the 1st particle might be deleted, but, no. By the no deleting theorem, any quantum particle can not be deleted. Then what does happen to the 1st quantum particle? As soon as the quantum information transfers the 1st quantum particle becomes another particle. Looking at the whole event we can conclude that the 1st particle actually changes its place to the 2nd particle. This is why the word “teleportation” exists and we call it Quantum teleportation.

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Quantum entanglement:

To know “Quantum teleportation” properly you need to gain an idea about Quantum entanglement because we need quantum entangled particles to proceed with the process of quantum teleportation.
under proper circumstances when we divide a Quantum particle into two others, their properties are linked in such a way that if one particle is of up-spin and the other is of down-spin, and if we separate them at very long distance and work on any particle, another particle will be effected simultaneously. Because of such weird behavior that in spite of being at a long distance they are connected so strongly, they communicate so fast, Einstein said this “spooky action at a distance”.

Bits and Qubits:

To calculate in the computer, we know that there is a unit called ‘bit’, 1024 bits make one byte, 1024 bytes make a KB and so that.
But in quantum computer Qubits (Quantum bits) are used.

Difference between bit and qubit:

We know that the computer only understands 0 and 1, i.e. the low-level language which forms machine instructions. This has two types- machine level language and assembly language. however, 0 and 1 are binary code, but in a computer 1 bit can only 0 and 1, not 0 and 1 simultaneously. while in the other hand in the Quantum computer, the qubit is the unit, and it contains 0 and 1 simultaneously, i.e. we can say it has 0 state and 1 state at the same time. This is why Quantum computer is so fast.

Process of quantum teleportation:

Quantum teleportation diagram
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suppose we have a source and destination and there is a particle in the source. we have to Quantum teleport a source particle or transfer the quantum information from source to destination. To do this we need one pair of quantum entangled particles. Due to Quantum entanglement, they are inter-related in such a way that if one is of up-state, another will be of down-state and if we disturb one particle, another particle will be effected simultaneously. Now we have to know the state of the source particle and the states of the entangled particles. we can not measure it but why can we not measure the proper states of quantum particles? There is a principle, the “superposition principle”. According to Niels Bohr, every Quantum particle contains all the possible States which are not well defined because then they belong to the wave properties but when we observe that these properties Vanish and it contains only well-defined particle nature. so now to measure there is a method of measurement, “Bell measurement” by which we don’t measure the particle states individually. With the help of “Bell measurement“, we measure the combined state of the source particle and one of the entangled particles. By the measurement, we cannot know the proper state of the particles but we can know the relation between them (are they of opposite spin or of the same spin).

Now the quantum teleportation will be held within few simple steps:

  1. Bell Measurement: During Bell Measurement the source particle and one of the entangled particles at the source interact and due to the interaction, the quantum information transfers from the source particle to the other interacted particle.
  2. Now since the particle is quantum entangled, as soon as one of the entangled particles gets the information and other entangled particles situated at a very long distance affected and gets the information simultaneously.
  3. Is Quantum teleportation faster than light? in the process, now we have to modify the entangled particle at the destination to get the information properly but how does the receiver know when the information has been shared? To tell him the sender have to use any classical communication (phone or email). as we have to take help of any normal communication method, there should not be any question arises about the faster speed than light.

Why it is hacking-proved for truly end-to-end encrypted it?

Here we use the quantum entanglement particle, which delivers information between them simultaneously and without any medium. So there is not any chance for the hacker. If you ask me ‘what about the classical communication?’ that should not be a problem because with classical communication the sender only lets the receiver know if the bell measured particles are opposite spin or of the same spin.

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