Black Hole information paradox, the most serious paradox in the universe. Our universe can be destroyed by the black hole. To know the ultimate fate of the universe and know in detail what is Black Hole information paradox, keep reading. Black holes are the space elements that are the most powerful objects in the universe, strong enough to change all-stars into atom-sized pieces.
But, askerweb.com is not here to discuss these properties of a hole that is black. We should be worried about the most property that is shocking of blackhole: they might delete the universe itself.
What is Black hole?
A black hole appears when an extraordinary amount of matter is concentrated in a space that is tiny. At their center, gravity is almost infinitely strong and whatever gets too close is ripped into its particles that are elementary. Not even light can escape holes that are black and so we the black hole seems to us as a sphere of blackness. I have told close, but how much close? Yes, there is a border. If you were to fall into a black hole, nothing bad would happen until well after you crossed its outer border: the event horizon.
But, why & how does it feel when we reach this point? Let’s imagine you’re swimming in a river that ends in a waterfall and carelessly you have reached the point that is ending of the river, I mean the point that is starting of the waterfall. No matter how fast and how much you try, you can not return. You have to fall with the waterfall, Whether you live or die is a matter of luck then.
I hope, I have succeeded to explain and express the feeling when you are attracted by any hole that is black.
This event horizon completely separates holes that are black from the rest of the universe: we can’t access them unless we’re willing to never return means we fall into the hole that is black.
So there’s no way of telling what’s really going on inside black holes, but we have ideas that are few what’s going on right at their edges that are very.
According to Stephen Hawking, Black holes radiate their mass away, like a pot that is hot a stove losing its water as steam. This is called Hawking radiation (Black holes constantly lose an extremely tiny amount of their mass in an unbelievable process. It that is slow take a black hole with a mass of our sun 10,000 billion billion billion billion billion billion years to lose 0.0000001% of its mass.) This is happening constantly and unstoppably, and as it goes on it speeds up more and more.
So, in the far future, when after evaporating if black holes die, some fundamental in this universe can vanish: information or the secrets of the universe.
What is information?
Information is nothing but an arrangement of atoms. This arrangement differentiates things, this is the fundamental reason why everything in this universe is unique.
Let’s start with a bunch of carbon atoms. If we Arrange them in a real way we get coal. If we Arrange them in a way that is different and we may get a diamond. The atoms are the same, what changes in the information. If we make this more complex and add in a few more atoms, we can get anything else, that is more developed and complex. Without information everything is the same, nothing is unique.
There are two fundamental theories in Physics:
Given a present wave function, its future changes are uniquely determined by the evolution operator.
The evolution operator has an inverse, meaning that the past wave functions are similarly unique.
What do these theories suggest? In simple language, everything in this universe has a unique initial condition and a unique final stage, seeing anything’s final condition, we can determine its initial condition and vice-versa.
According to the theory of quantum mechanics, information is indestructible: it can change shape by rearranging and give birth to a new thing, but it never can be lost or destroyed, almost like conservation of mass or conservation of energy theorems.
Let’s take a simple example. If we burn a book, it becomes ash and produce some heats and smokes and we all think that That ash shall never again become paper.
But, theoretically, if we can properly collect every atom from the ash, smoke, and change again the heat to atoms and rearrange them in the proper way and reconstruct the previous shape, we can get back the book and can gain our knowledge by reading it. So, in short, after burning a book, it is not destroyed or lost, it still exists in our universe, just the problem is it’s difficult (sorry, almost impossible) to read.
If we are able to access all the atoms in the universe, we can have the key to the all secrets of the universe, we will be able to know how the big bang happens? what happened before the universe? and what happens to our universe in the future?
Hypothetically, we could see and track every bit of information there is.
Now, come to the exact problem. Information creates different things by just rearranging the atoms, where black holes take the things, but to where nobody knows, i.e. it destroys the information because it gets the universe’s things out of the universe or to where in the universe nobody has access to it.
This creates a contradiction with the fundamental Physics formulas which leads to the most serious problem of the universe, a paradox: The Black Hole Information Paradox.
It’s fundamental for all our laws of physics that information can never be lost.
How could we solve this Black Hole Information Paradox?
There are several theories explained brilliantly that The Black Hole Information Paradox comes to an end.
There are 2 possibilities:
1) Information is lost:
The information which balck hole collects or eats are lost forever and this is an irreversible process. This directly challenges the Physics law, which means the fundamental law of conservation of information and the all laws based on this law are wrong and we have to accept that all the Physics laws are rubbish and we have to start from scratch.
2) Information is hidden:
It may posiible that all the information that black hole eats is hidden to us or encrypted to us. We will be able to decrypt this when we can know more details about black holes, specifically if we know where the black hole throws the information. There are several theories, those suggest that there is a baby uiverse behind all the blak holes or somebodies suggest that there is the parallel universe behind them, which leads to an unacceptable conclusion: the black hole and worm hole are same things.
However, these all theories are matter of research. Whatever happens to all these information but it’s certail that after collecting by the black holes inforation is just a corrupted storage drive, we have to repair them to get the all information back. Fall into the event horizon of the black hole is like throwing a stone to a pond, if we take the pond as black hole and the upper surface as event horizon, it will be easy to understand. We can get back the stone if we dive into the pond and collect it, but for the black hole, till now it’s impossible. There is another popular argument taht suggests that the black hole just changes the arrangement of the information, till now to which format we have know access, like changes a book to e-book format.
There is a solution named the holographic principle, according to which “The universe is a hologram” and the black hole processes it.
A hologram is a 3D flat piece of plastic that encoded 3-dimensional images and makes them 2D, but to us, it seems to be 3D, actually, it plays with 2D and 3D. I know it’s complicated, but please stay with me. If we take the event horizon as a holographic plate, then it would solve many problems. Assume, the 3D things of the universe which fall into the event horizon seems to us as 2D images, but they experience 3D space.
Comment below how does this crazy duality between 2D and 3D, that works for black holes blow your mind?