The evolution of mobile wireless technology is actually an evolution of modern civilization generation of the internet is developing with the development of new technology & the mobile phone is an important part of this evolution. Mobile phones mean the phone with mobility capacity. That means it’s portable. This is such a technology in which the sender & receiver in a computer network are not connected with any type of wire. That’s why it can be said wireless. In this technology, NIC (Networked Interface Card) & Router are used instead of copper or optical fiber.
Japan established the first mobile phone system and this system was first launched in
Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland. After this, the generation for a mobile wireless communication system was introduced.
Depending on the use, service, power & acceptability mobile phone generation was defined in a total of 6 groups.
This all started after World War II with the zero generation (0G) technology. It was based on a mobile radiotelephone system.
The first generation (1G) mobile telecommunications are the analog communication technology where only voice call was possible. It was only used for public voice service with a maximum speed of 2.4 kbps. In the second generation (2G) cellular communication it was digital technology and text messaging was added with a voice call. In the third generation (3G) faster internet speed was the main advantage of the generation. Enhanced & improved data connectivity with a maximum of 2 Mbps speed can be felt. Besides, it roaming and updated voice quality were other important features. The fourth-generation (4G) is of broadband cellular network technology when the first Long Term Evolution (LTE) is shown. This time wireless LAN technology is an amazing feature. But now roaming facility is globally The fifth-generation (5G) is the latest generation of cellular mobile communication. It achieves much higher data rates. In this generation network capacity but also massive transfer speed & control over huge traffic were a matter of research.
Generation or the evolution of Internet :
0G (0th generation)
- This was a pre-cellular system. That does not mean the era of telephone, this was one type of telephone but wireless.
- it was also known as the mobile radiotelephone system
- This was an analog system, that means carrier was analog in nature
- In mobile radiotelephone system half-duplex is used, where at a time only one speaker & one audience are permitted
- Each city has a central antenna with 25 other channels & the range was only under 20 Km
- Several technologies such as 1. Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS), 2. Mobile telephone system (MTS), 3. MTD (Mobile Telephony system D) was supported at this time.
- Roaming was not available.
1G (1st generation)
- In 1980 it was first introduced.
- Data transfer speed was up to 2.4 Kbps.
- Voice calling was limited within one country.
- The mobile phone is first used in Japan & soon is spread to the whole world
- This was an analog technology because with the help of Frequency Division Multiple Access it just modulates the voice call frequency up to 150 Hz.
- Not very much accessible for common people, because in this generation it was widely used in industrial, military & research applications.
- Advanced Mobile phone System (AMPS) was first launched in Ameria
2 G (2nd generation)
- The first introduced in 1991 in Finland.
- CDMA & GSM were based technologies.
- This was digital technology.
- The data transfer speed was 64 Kbps.
- Text message, Picture message & MMS ( Multimedia Message) were introduced
- A high digital signal is needed, if in any area network coverage is weak function is almost impossible.
- Complex data transfer (video calling, conferencing, streaming) is not possible.
**2.5G & 2.75G**
There are two extra unofficial generations between 2G & 3G. In this era, data speed increased from 64 Kbps to 144 Kbps. The camera included mobile is the invention of this era. Phone, E-mail, surfing, browsing, etc were available. Actually 2.5G was a mixed generation of 2G & GPRS technology.
2.75G was just a little updated version invented by Cingular. Data speed increased up to 384 Kbps and EDGE technology was introduced.
3G (3rd generation)
- It is from 2000 decade.
- Data transfer speed was from 144 Kbps to 2 Mbps.
- The actual use of smartphones started from here. Besides, audio, video, bandwidth, surfing everything increased.
- The use of 3D technology (3D gaming, TV-streaming) increased.
- IPTV ( TV through the internet) support developed.
- This was under a plan named, International Mobile Telephone 2000 (IMT-2000), Standard, under which ITU (International Telecom Union) implemented a global frequency band in the 2000 MHZ range, which will support a single, ubiquitous wireless communication standard for all countries throughout the world.
**3.5G & 3.75G**
Similar to 2.5G & 2.75G there were two unofficial generations between 3G and 4G. 3.5 G was an invention of HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) protocol, which provides a smooth evolutionary path for UMTS-based 3G networks allowing for higher data transfer speeds. Through this technology data speed can be shown 8-10 Mbps.
3.75G was an evolution of HSUPA (High-Speed Uplink Packet Access). It enhanced advanced person-to-person data applications & real-time person-to-person gaming. Here data speed was 1.4 Mbps to 5.8 Mbps.
One more thing is that HSDPA & HSUPA were complementary to one another.
4G (4th generation)
- At the last stage of the 2000 decade, it started.
- Data transfer speed was from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps.
- Enhanced security, enriched multimedia & service were key points at this time.
- High-quality roaming service can be seen here, anybody from anywhere can access any service.
- Download & upload speed both were improved, one of the reasons is that ultra-broadband [Ultra Wide Radio Band (UWB)] is used instead of broadband like 3G.
- A new technology named as OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Access), a combination of CDMA & IS-95 was started.
- Some people call this technology “MAGIC”
M= Mobile multimedia
A= Anytime anywhere
G= Global mobility support
I= Integrated wireless solution
C= Customized personal service
- LTE (Long Time Evolution) & VOLTE ( Voice Over Long Time Evolution) were two important words in this generation
- Now come to the near future generation, 5G generation, where not only data transfer rate is matter to improved, but also improvement of overall services & features are focused on improvement.
- Not yet tried but researchers are saying that one full-length movie can be downloaded within a mere second. In 2017 3GPP ( The 3rd Generation Partnership Project, which creates the rules for wireless connectivity) issued a non-stand-alone standard for 5G, which allowed 5G to coexist with 4G. But in 2018 3GPP finalized the standard for stand-alone 5G.
- Infrastructure developers like Nokia & Ericsson researched and developed 5G with 4 major wireless carriers ( AT&T, Sprint, Verizon, T-mobile) in the Us for the recent two years with equipped devices, which implies that our 3G even 4G devices can not handle or catch 5G signal.
- With the help of 5G schools, hospitals, all types of industry can be improved, because the communication will become instantaneous.
- Currently, there are a total of 3 5G-capable smartphones on the market: Samsung’s Galaxy S 10 ($1299), LG’s V50 ThinQ ($1152) & Moto Z3. Reliance Jio has a plan too to provide 5G services in 2020 in India with their own 5G handsets, Vodafone and BSNL also have started preparation, Reliance Jio’s entry in September 2016 was an evolution in the digital world, Its pulled down data prices & free voice call service forced other players to consider their plans and only for Jio 4G cheap data price in India has been possible. So, every Indian is looking at Jio.
At a glance of the evolution of mobile wireless technology
|1G||1960-1980||2 Kbps||Analog(AMPS, TACS, NMT)||Voice calls only|
|2G||1980-2000||64 Kbps||Digital (TDMA, CDMA)||Digital voice & SMS|
|2.5G||2000-2004||171.4 Kbps||GPRS||Web browsing|
|3G||2004-2005||3.1 Mbps||CDMA 200||Video calling|
|3.5G||2006-2010||14.4 Mbps||HSPA||Higher speeds|
|4G||Now||100Mbps-1Gbps||Wi-fi, LTE, Wi-Max||HD video call & streaming|
|5G||Coming Soon||Higher than 1Gbps||wwww||Enhanced security & features|